frequently asked questions

European Reference Populations


We include the following ethnic groups and their regional divisions. These regional divisions generally center on geographical differences. Notably, within England alone, there are several distinct population clusters. On your report, we will list the specific regions if they are prominent. For example, for Britain we may list: Cornish, English (Unspecified), English (Sussex, Somerset, Kent, Cornish, Devon, Northumberland, Yorkshire, North, South, East, West, etc), Irish (north, south), Scottish, Orcadian, Welsh (north, south), etc. Similarly, other European nations share notable distinctions between their regions, and we will list them wherever possible. Here is a brief list of some of the other European ethnicities which we reference: French (Breton, Norman, etc), German (east, west, etc), Belgian, Dutch, Danish, Polish, Czech, Slovenian, Hungarian, Swiss, Iberian (general), Spanish (Galicia, Extremadura, etc..), Basque, Portuguese, Italian (north, south, Tuscan, Abruzzo, etc), Sardinian, Sicilian, Maltese, Greek, Balkan, Serbian, Romanian, Bulgarian, Belorussian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Lithuanian Jewish, Estonian, Russian, Siberian (found in Finnish populations), Sami, Finnish, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Hungarian, Austrian, Romani, Georgian, Armenian, Ashkenazi Jewish, Kosovo, Macedonian, Albanian, Croatian, Moldovian, Turkish, Ukrainian Jewish, Ukrainian, Italian Jewish, Cypriot, Sephardic Jewish, Nenet , Chechen, Chuvash, Georgian Jewish, Icelandic, Moldavian (Romania, Moldova, Ukraine), Turkish (Aydin, Trabzon, Kayseri, West, East, etc).




The British Isles


Cornish
English (Unspecified),
English (Sussex, Somerset, Kent, Cornish, Devon, Northumberland, Yorkshire, North, South, East, West, etc)
Irish (north, south)
Scottish
Orcadian
Welsh (north, south- Pembrokeshire)
The populations from the following regions also form distinct genetic clusters which we can detect to varying degrees depending on admixture:

North Ireland/West Scotland (not very common)
North Ireland/ South Scotland
Northeast Scotland
Westray (sub population within Orkney)




France, Germany, The Netherlands


We can detect regional variations within the French, German, and Dutch populations corresponding to certain regions and geographical locations. They are as follows:

French - Norman, Breton, Basque, Flemish, Occitan, northern, northeastern, southwest, southeast.
German - Saxony, Bavaria, Hesse, northern, southern, eastern, western.
The Netherlands - Dutch (north), Dutch (south)
Please note that this is only possible when there are direct isolated lineages from the above regions. Due to gene flow, these estimates are not always accurate. For example, there are pockets of historically southwestern French populations which have moved to the north of France and lived there for generations. This example scenario is applicable for any ethnic group.





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